Level 1 Therapeutics supports optimal health by providing current integrative medicine information, tools, and Level 1 nutritional supplements.

Clinical Studies

Nitric Oxide Supplement Research
Inorganic nitrate supplementation lowers blood pressure in humans: role for nitrite-derived NO
Enhanced vasodilator activity of nitrite in hypertension

Effects of a nitrate-rich meal on arterial stiffness and blood pressure in healthy volunteers.


Capsiate Gold™ Research
Effects of dihydrocapsiate on adaptive and diet-induced thermogenesis with a high protein very low calorie diet: a randomized control trial

The Effects of Capsaicin and Capsiate on Energy Balance – Critical Review and Meta-analyses of Studies in Humans

Nonpungent capsaicin analogs (capsinoids) increase energy expenditure through the activation of brown adipose tissue in humans

Effects of capsinoid ingestion on energy expenditure and lipid oxidation at rest and during exercise

Effects of novel capsinoid treatment on fatness and energy metabolism in humans: possible pharmacogenetic implications

CH-19 Sweet, a Non-Pungent Cultivar of Red Pepper, Increased Body Temperature and Oxygen Consumption in Humans

Upregulation of uncoupling proteins by oral administration of capsiate, a nonpungent capsaicin analog

TRPV1 activation and induction of nociceptive response by a non-pungent capsaicin-like compound, capsiate

Effects of CH-19 Sweet, a Non-Pungent Cultivar of Red Pepper, in Decreasing the Body Weight and Suppressing Body Fat Accumulation by Sympathetic Nerve Action in Humans

Enhanced Energy Expenditure and Fat Oxidation in Humans with High BMI Scores by the Ingestion of Novel and Non-Pungent Capsaicin Analogues (Capsinoids)

Effects of CH-19 Sweet, a Non-Pungent Cultivar of Red Pepper, on Sympathetic Nervous Activity, Body Temperature, Heart Rate, and Blood Pressure in Humans

Novel Capsaicinoid-like Substances, Capsiate and Dihydrocapsiate, from the Fruits of a Nonpungent Cultivar, CH-19 Sweet, of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

Improving the Efficacy of Capsinoids as a Thermogenic Adjunct in Clinical Weight Management


Glysom® Research
Subjective effects of glycine ingestion before bedtime on sleep quality

Glycine ingestion improves subjective sleep quality in human volunteers, correlating with polysomnographic changes

Assessment of Acute Adverse Events of Glycine Ingestion at a High Dose in Human Volunteers

Impact of Sleep and Sleep Loss on Neuroendocrine and Metabolic Function

Association Between Sleep Architecture and Measures of Body Composition

The effects of glycine on subjective daytime performance in partially sleep-restricted healthy volunteers


MagSRT™ Research
Scottsdale Magnesium Study: Absorption, Cellular Uptake, and Clinical Effectiveness of a Timed-Release Magnesium Supplement in a Standard Adult Clinical Population

Scottsdale Magnesium Study Summary


MegaQuinone Research
Dietary phylloquinone and menaquinones intakes and risk of type 2 diabetes.

Real-time cell analysis of the inhibitory effect of vitamin K2 on adhesion and proliferation of breast cancer cells. 

Dietary intake of menaquinone is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: The Rotterdam Study.

Vitamin K(2) prevents hyperglycemia and cancellous osteopenia in rats with streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes.

The effect of menatetrenone, a vitamin K2 analog, on disease recurrence and survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after curative treatment: a pilot study. 

High dietary menaquinone intake is associated with reduced coronary calcification. 

Vitamin K2 supplementation improves insulin sensitivity via osteocalcin metabolism: a placebo-controlled trial. 

Crosstalk from non-cancerous mitochondria can inhibit tumor properties of metastatic cells by suppressing oncogenic pathways.

Effect of calcium supplements on risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular events: Meta-analysis. 

Vitamin k2, a naturally occurring menaquinone, exerts therapeutic effects on both hormone-dependent and hormone-independent prostate cancer cells.


Probiotic (MegaSpore Probiotic) Research
Oral spore-based probiotic supplementation was associated with reduced incidence of post-prandial dietary endotoxin, triglycerides, and disease risk biomarkers.

Role of commensal bacteria in development of gut-associated lymphoid tissue and preimmune antibody repertoire.

Stress induces endotoxemia and low-grade inflammation by increasing barrier permeability.

Effects of Bacillus subtilis on epithelial tight junctions of mice with inflammatory bowel disease.

Histological alterations of intestinal villi in chickens fed dried Bacillus subtilis var. natto.

The Intestinal Life Cycle of Bacillus subtilis and Close Relatives.

Probiotic strain Bacillus subtilis CU1 stimulates immune system of elderly during common infectious disease period: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study.

Sporulation during Growth in a Gut Isolate of Bacillus subtilis.

Bacillus subtilis isolated from the human gastrointestinal tract.

Bacillus coagulans: a viable adjunct therapy for relieving symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis according to a randomized, controlled trial.

Efficacy of Bacillus clausii spores in the prevention of recurrent respiratory infections in children: a pilot study.

Bacillus clausii probiotic strains: antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities.

Bacillus clausii therapy to reduce side-effects of anti-Helicobacter pylori treatment: randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial.

Bacillus clausii as a Treatment of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth.

Bacillus clausii effect on gene expression pattern in small bowel mucosa using DNA microarray analysis.

Cytokines evaluation in nasal lavage of allergic children after Bacillus clausii administration: A pilot study.

Bacillus Probiotics: Spore Germination in the Gastrointestinal Tract.


NuLean Research
7-day study

36-day study

6-week study


Percepta™ Research
Disruption/Dissolution of Beta-Amyloid (1-42) “Plaque-like” Fibrils as Determined by a Number of Different In Vitro Studies


L-Theanine (SunTheanine®) Research
L-theanine-a unique amino acid of geen tea and its relaxation effect in humans

The Effects of L-Theanine (Suntheanine) on Objective Sleep Quality in Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): a Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial

Anti-stress effect of theanine on students during pharmacy practice: Positive correction among salivary α-amylase activity, trait anxiety and subjective stress

Effects of L-Theanine, an Amino Acid Derived from Camellia sinensis (green tea) on stress response parameters

In Search of a Safe Natural Sleep Aid

Effect of L-theanine on glutamatergic function in patients with schizophrenia

Effects of chronic L-theanine administration in patients with major depressive disorder: an open-label study

L-theanine, a natural constituent in tea,and its effect on mental state

L-Theanine Relives Positive,Activation, and Anxiety Symptoms in Patient with Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder: An 8-Week, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, 2-Center Study


SunFiber® Research
U.S. Food and Drug Administration confirms that Sunfiber® meets its definition of a dietary fiber

Health Canada approves Taiyo’s Sunfiber® health claims for treating IBS and improving childhood constipation

Sunfiber research